Northern Illinois University Press

State of Madness

Psychiatry, Literature, and Dissent After Stalin

Rebecca Reich

“Reich demonstrates the truly insidious nature of state-sponsored psychiatric discourse and practice after Stalin. Rather than a simple indictment, however, she accesses important primary and secondary sources to explore the complexity of defining ‘madness’ in this conformist society.” —Angela Brintlinger, coeditor of Madness and the Mad in Russian Culture

“The inherent slipperiness of diagnostic categories such as “schizophrenia” […] is the subject of Rebecca Reich’s fascinating and impressively nuanced new study.”–Times Literary Supplement

What madness meant was a fiercely contested question in Soviet society. State of Madness examines the politically fraught collision between psychiatric and literary discourses in the years after Joseph Stalin’s death. State psychiatrists deployed set narratives of mental illness to pathologize dissenting politics and art. Dissidents such as Aleksandr Vol’pin, Vladimir Bukovskii, and Semen Gluzman responded by highlighting a pernicious overlap between those narratives and their life stories. The state, they suggested in their own psychiatrically themed texts, had crafted an idealized view of reality that itself resembled a pathological work of art. In their unsanctioned poetry and prose, the writers Joseph Brodsky, Andrei Siniavskii, and Venedikt Erofeev similarly engaged with psychiatric discourse to probe where creativity ended and insanity began. Together, these dissenters cast themselves as psychiatrists to a sick society.

By challenging psychiatry’s right to declare them or what they wrote insane, dissenters exposed as a self-serving fiction the state’s renewed claims to rationality and modernity in the post-Stalin years. They were, as they observed, like the child who breaks the spell of collective delusion in Hans Christian Andersen’s story “The Emperor’s New Clothes.” In a society where normality means insisting that the naked monarch is clothed, it is the truth-teller who is pathologized. Situating literature’s encounter with psychiatry at the center of a wider struggle over authority and power, this bold interdisciplinary study will appeal to literary specialists; historians of culture, science, and medicine; and scholars and students of the Soviet Union and its legacy for Russia today.

March 2018 283 pp., 6x9
ISBN 978-0-87580-775-1
$60.00s Hardcover

Rebecca Reich is a lecturer in Russian literature and culture at the University of Cambridge.

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ISBN: 978-0-87580-775-1
Hardcover $60.00